Fun Times of DNA Replication

Dna, Molecule, Medicine, Dna, Dna, Dna

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from a single original DNA molecule. This method occurs in all living organisms and is the basis for biological inheritance. The cell possesses the distinctive property of division, which makes replication of DNA essential. DNA is composed of a double helix of two complementary strands. During replication, these strands are separated. Each strand of the original DNA molecule then functions as a template for the creation of its counterpart, a procedure referred to as semiconservative replication. Cellular proofreading and error-checking mechanics ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication.

In a cell, DNA replication starts at specific locations, or origins of replication, in the genome. Unwinding of DNA at the source and synthesis of new strands leads to replication forks growing bi-directionally from the origin. A number of proteins are associated with the replication fork to help in the initiation and continuation of DNA synthesis. Most prominently, DNA polymerase synthesizes the new strands with the addition of nucleotides that match each (template) strand. DNA replication may also be performed in vitro (artificially, outside a mobile ). DNA polymerases isolated from cells and artificial DNA primers can be used to initiate DNA synthesis at known sequences in a template DNA molecule. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a frequent laboratory technique, cyclically applies such artificial synthesis to amplify a specific target DNA fragment from a pool of DNA. DNA usually exists as a double-stranded structure, with both strands coiled together to form the characteristic double-helix. Each single strand of DNA is a series of four kinds of nucleotides. Nucleotides in DNA have a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate, and a nucleobase.

The four kinds of nucleotide correspond to the four nucleobases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, commonly abbreviated as A,C, G and T. Adenine and guanine are purine bases, while cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines. These nucleotides form phosphodiester bonds, producing the phosphate-deoxyribose backbone of the DNA double helix with the nuclei bases pointing inward (i.e., toward the opposing strand). Nucleotides (bases) are matched between strands through hydrogen bonds to form base pairs. Adenine pairs with thymine (two hydrogen bonds), and guanine pairs with cytosine (more powerful: three hydrogen bonds).

DNA strands have a directionality, and the different ends of a single strand are known as the”3′ (three-prime) end” and the”5′ (five-prime) end”. By convention, if the base sequence of a single strand of DNA is given, the left end of the sequence is the 5′ end, while the ideal end of the sequence is the 3′ end. These conditions refer to the carbon atom in deoxyribose to which the next phosphate from the series attaches. Directionality has consequences in DNA synthesis, because DNA polymerase can synthesize DNA in just 1 direction by adding nucleotides to the 3′ end of a DNA strand. The pairing of complementary bases in DNA (via hydrogen bonding) means that the data contained within each strand is redundant.

Phosphodiester (intra-strand) bonds are stronger than hydrogen (inter-strand) bonds. This allows the strands to be separated from one another. The nucleotides on a single strand can therefore be used to reconstruct nucleotides on a recently synthesized partner strand. Everything required to know about DNA structure and its replication.

Internet Security

Code, Programming, Hacking, Html, Web

Multi-factor authentication (MFA) makes it much harder for a hacker to access your online stuff, and also the most common type of customer MFA is two-factor authentication (2FA). A very common kind of 2FA is your debit card. One variable is the card itself, which contains magnetic identifying info (these days, a processor ), and a PIN that you provide when you stick the thing in an ATM machine. It’s easy and fairly good at keeping others from your ATM-accessible cash. 2FA is important for your internet accounts, such as email and your iCloud accounts.

While I admit it can be a bit of a pain to need to do something extra to enter your account, it is much less of a pain than having one’s identity stolen, losing access to your email, or replying to your friends who wonder why you’ve said such mad things about them (unless, of course, you actually said those crazy things!) .

Here is how 2FA or two-step authentication works for a couple different online account types. (Note, these services change things up from time to time, so it is better to keep abreast of such changes.)

Setting up Google 2-Step affirmation

First you log in with user name and password (we’ll get to picking smart passwords Part 3) to your Gmail account. There should be an avatar in a circle close to the upper-left hand corner of the window. Perhaps it’s even a photo of you. Click on it and you will see”My Account.” (Incidentally, this changes every few years) On the new window that opens , click on”Sign-in & safety.” Time to put in your username and password again. Enter a phone number and click on if you want to be given a text or a phone call. Then you magically get a text or phone call with a 6-digit verification code. Type it in and pick the choice to turn on 2-step verification. It’s that easy. Okay, it has several steps, but not that hard.

It might be that you prefer to collect your Gmail with another program, like Outlook, as opposed to using a browser to go to the Gmail page for your email. If so, it may be that once you’ve turned on two-step confirmation, your Outlook (or other program ) keeps telling you that you have the wrong password, even though you know darn well it is right. This has happened to me. You probably will need to have Google give you a particular program password that Google will create for you. You will need to visit the App passwords page, which at the time of this writing is here.

Select the program you want it for (if Outlook, then you would select”Mail”), then the device you’re using (Google magically presents a list of those devices you use with their solutions ). Then select “Generate.” It will show you a 16-digit amount in a yellow bar that you use as your new password for that app (Outlook, eg) on that device (do not enter the spaces). You can save that password in your app and you may need that number again in the future.


Yahoo! is comparable: sign into your account, go to the account safety page, click on”two-step confirmation,” and toggle the button to turn it on. Select an option to get a text or a phone call for confirmation. Enter the code which comes to you via text or phone call. Now, you can create an app password, much like the Google procedure above for your various programs like Outlook or Apple (iOS) Mail.


Now, let’s set up 2FA on your iCloud account. First, you have to get a passcode set in your iPhone or iPad.

Click on the Settings app. Did I mention that this will change as Apple keeps us on our toes by changing everything up once we have gotten comfortable with the previous version? In the most recent previous version, you’d have clicked on Preferences, then on iCloud, then your name, then Password & Security.

Be prepared to answer some safety questions – that we’ll be discussing in a future article – and then enter the phone number where you want to get the code for 2FA, and as previously, pick whether you want a phone call or a text.


For a Mac, open System Preferences, and select iCloud, and then”Account Details.” You might need to login using your Apple credentials. As above, answer your security questions whether it asks, enter the telephone number where you would like to get calls or texts for confirmation. Once again, a magical robot immediately sends you the code and you must enter that in the field that awaits your answer.

Once it is turned on, you will get a message asking for approval if an unknown device or place signs onto your account. Notice that on a Mac, that notification can sometimes be on a window that’s hidden behind another, so look for that in case you discover you’re having troubles with getting the approval request.

Speaking of troubles, it looks like a lot of work to have two-factor authentication, but once it is set up, it’s not too much of a pain and will add considerable security to your accounts, in addition to considerable barriers to potential hackers.

Alternative Energies

Geyser, Strokkur, Geyser Strokkur

The geothermal exploration does involve the search for active geothermal regions with the intention of building the geothermal power plants. The exploration methods do involve several techniques ranging from the drilling process into the geochemical analysis.

The geochemical analysis involves the analysis of relationships between surface fluid properties into geothermal bodies. Geothermometers and other sophisticated instruments are used to measure the subsurface temperatures. In the geochemical analysis for geothermal exploration, temperature, the ratios of isotopes, elemental ratios (such as mercury and carbon dioxide), etc are a few of the significant measurements being made.

In the magnetic method for exploration of geothermal energy, identification of the depth of the Curie point or Curie temperature is the main measurement.

Most of the geological materials are non-conductors of power and thus have high resistivity but the structural characteristics can boost their conductivity. Such transformation in conductivity does facilitate the mapping and thus the composition of the subsurface lithology The magnetotellurics measurements facilitate the identification of resistivity anomalies associated with the geothermal structural features such as faults. Such measurements would result in an assessment of geothermal reservoir temperatures at several depths. This method was successfully employed for the detection of geothermal energy in several states and particularly around the ring of fire.

The resistivity methods are also being widely used to explore the geothermal energy resources. The flowing geothermal waters are the zones of reduced resistance.

The gravity method is usually utilized to identify the subsurface density anomalies. Such measurements would be helpful to locate the geothermal regions. The aerial gravitational techniques are more efficient in the collection of information. The gravity data should be adjusted for elevation, latitude, etc..

These regions are usually characterized by low magnitude earthquakes. Hence, further studies in such locations might provide clues to the identification of geothermal energy sites.

The drilling process is one of the most expensive but can provide reliable information related to the subsurface. The geothermal characteristics like thermal pockets, temperature gradients, etc are obtained by using several types of drilling methods. The latest developments in remote sensing techniques have also been helping in the exploration of geothermal energy resources.

Steel vs Rebar

Construction, Moniereisen, Architecture

Many of the bounties and resources of the earth like iron, nickel and other metals are used in creating metals. Iron is alloyed with carbon to form carbon steel and there are a number of different techniques to derive alloy steel. These modifications due to the inclusion of various alloying elements enhance the metal’s features. It also gives intentional attributes and attributes to the alloy which aren’t present in the element alone. Steel rebars may be available and a strong durable material used, popularly, in construction projects worldwide. However, what if another material was also available which is 3 times more powerful, has a life expectancy 5 times more than steel and cost-effective, trustworthy and downright sensible.

GFRP Rebar has been around for a while but due to several reasons, that doesn’t really have anything to do with its qualities and features, has not seen the enormous market share of growth as it should. A variety of factors contribute to the situation including commercial motives and opposing business entities that are catering to self-interests. Also, despite large-scale recommendations and certificate from civil engineering associations of steel as dependable and reliable overshadowing much of the rising trend of using a composite material in their infrastructural and structure, this lightweight, sturdy material is here to stay. With establishments and entities making their own guidelines for the usage of GFRP, this revolution in civil engineering is doing a hundred twenty on the information highway and going places fast.

Traditional Steel

The benefits of GFRP rebar outweigh those of steel in many ways. Beginning with steel, its safe to conclude that some, while not all, rehab needs rise around ten years following conclusion but others need major rehabilitation in no more than twenty years. Also, because of corrosion and weather effects, steel loses stability and deteriorates. Another disadvantage of steel is its massive weight. Its heavy and cumbersome work lifting and transporting steel rebars. Envision the workload of an average employee and the amount of work required to install steel. Its sturdy strength is brought together with fantastic weight. Delivering a project can be delayed because of completion problems and many do happen during installation phases. Shipping and mobilization costs are high and more manpower is required to be able to complete as per schedule.

GFRP Rebar

In comparison with steel, glass-fiber reinforced polymer rebar has a shelf life of above a hundred years, so rehabilitation work isn’t required soon. It does erode nor rust. Totally resistant to weather conditions and even bears moisture attacks with grace making it non-susceptible to chemicals and water. It’s lightweight with being 1/3 times milder by ratio-wise comparison against steel. Easy in loading and highly resistant to damage while transporting. Utilizing it also increases the odds of finishing a project well before time as it is easily handled and installed. By choosing GFRP rebars, prices are lowered with less manpower and shipping expenditures.

Hog Dog History

Hot Dog, Sausage, Cucumber, Roll

Also called a frankfurter or wiener, the hot dog’s origin is claimed by the city of Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany, and by a butcher living in Coburg, Germany., who traveled to Frankfurt to promote his new product, sometime in the late 1600s. Either way, German immigrants attracted not only the sausage together in the 1800s, but also their beloved dachshund dogs, and the name probably started as a joke about the little, long, thin dogs.

Food historians at Yale University say that the word”hot dog” started appearing in faculty magazines back in the 1890s. When students began calling wagons outside their dormitories selling hot sausages as”puppy wagons.” It did not take long for the word”dog” to become”hot dog.” German immigrants first sold them from push carts in New York City’s Bowery in the 1860s. Another story recounts a German butcher, Charles Feltman, in 1871 hawked sausages with milk rolls out of his stand on Coney Island, beginning a trend to this day of the famous”Coney Dog,” (usually topped with a savory meat sauce). The bun made its debut at the Colombian Exposition a few years later where visitors gobbled them down in large quantities. Vendors had a hit on their hands, and we can thank Germans for their culinary contribution.

These 2016 statistics bear out the massive demand and fame; Los Angeles residents consume more hot dogs than any other city (more than 36 million pounds), beating out New York and Philadelphia. Dodger fans alone consumed 2.6 million in 2016 the birthplace of the Dodger Dog, a 10 inch pork wiener wrapped in a steamed bun sold at Dodger Stadium; across the Nation leading league fans enjoyed 19.4 million during the 2016 season;

+On Independence Day (July 4th) Americans enjoy 150 million hot dogs, enough to stretch from to D.C. to L.A. over five times;

+During peak season, from Memorial Day to Labor Day, Americans typically consume 7 billion; that’s 818 consumed every second.

+Top hot dog consuming cities are home to a major league baseball team (no

Los Angeles

+Nathan’s – started in 1916 by a Polish immigrant Nathan Handwerker selling a 5 center from his stand on Coney Island, they still predominate NYC and are famous for their July 4th eating competition; reigning men’s champion again in 2018, Joey Chestnut (using a record 74 at 10 minutes) and Miki Sudo (women’s) at 37 (burp);

+Wienerschnitzel – an American fast food chain based in 1961, also known as the World’s Largest Hot Dog Chain 358 places;

+Chicago style – that does not know what this is: hot dog, poppy seed bun, Vienna wiener, mustard, tomato wedges, chopped white onions, bright green sweet pickle relish, a dill pickle spear, sport peppers and a dash of celery salt, don’t even mention the”k” word (ketchup);

Most popular retail brands:

+Oscar Mayer Classic Wieners (no surprise here)
+Hebrew National 97% Fat Free Beef Franks (fewer additives and fillers)
+Sabrett Skinless Beef Frankfurters (who?)
Costco – In 2015, Costco food courts sold 128 million hot dogs; in $1.50 (includes drink) on average, up from 100 million a year before;

Retail sales – 1 billion pounds were sold at retail stores. That number represents more than $2.4 billion in retail sales.

+Chicago’s O’Hare Airport sells six times more hot dogs than Los Angeles and LaGuardia Airport combined which clocks in at 725,000; travelers expect for a flight delay so they can nosh on these dogs;

Well, statistics do not lie.Americans love their hot dogs, and they have their own distinct methods of preparing and enjoying them. Whether you select sauerkraut, chili, cheese, mustard, relish, onions, ketchup or all the above, nothing satisfies like a hot dog. Eaten on the run, wolfed down from a street vendor or savored in a backyard barbecue, they are pure American and everyone can enjoy them anywhere, anytime. So pile on the condiments and chow down.

Not all Towing Companies are the same

Truck, Vice, Piggyback, Recycling

Ever wonder about the importance of a reliable towing service? How often have you been in a pickle,”vehicle-ularily” speaking, and couldn’t find help? On the road, misfortunes strike without warning. Without a plan for such conditions, drivers and car-owners would have a pretty hard time if ever caught up in such a unfortunate situation like engine trouble, brake failure, accidents, etc. it is always wise to plan before undergoing hardship on the road. Getting the help of a reliable tow truck service is a boon that saves you from a great deal of stress and frustration.

A towing company that that will not take advantage of situations when clientele are facing crises, unlike many out there, is bound to get the confidence and trust of its loyal customers. Folks always rely on others who are there for them in desperate times and getting the ideal service provider is necessary for peace of mind and to enjoy the day with other healthy activities like family time instead of worrying about car troubles. As an example, professionals prioritize their careers which take up most of the energy and the last thing they need is their car breaking down in the side of the highway on their way to an important meeting. Imagine that!

Choosing the right towing service will make life easier for anybody but how can one do that? Among the best way to gain insight into it’s by asking around. Family, relative and friends would have confronted such nightmares so begin by inquiring around you, where you live. Someone is sure to have been rescued with emergency services which would be valuable information to give a head start. They may even have advice for you as to who to stay away from by their expertise.

It’s impertinent to be clear from the start. Questions like how much they charge, how far they would tow truck the vehicle from and how they receive payment i.e. through insurance company or direct straight up-front cold hard cash. Tell them about your automobile and discuss some details with them so when needed, they know which vehicle they ship for rescue purposes. Once your satisfied with a business, keep their number handy by saving it into your cell phone and writing it down inside the car somewhere safe where you can find it easily. Do this and you would be relieved in most dire circumstances that you may encounter.

An integral tip to remember is that there is no substitute for experience and research. Finding the best rates and services from within a broken-down car in the side of the highway is not going to happen! It’s that very situation that come tow providers exploit so never put yourself in circumstances where they would demand absurd prices!

Planning your next Jewish Heritage site vacation

Tea Leaves, Tea, Plantation, Hills

Have you considered going to Southeast Asia for a Jewish trip?

The Jews have had a long history in Asia. Their settlements were created by Jewish immigrants, many of them fleeing from nations that persecuted them. Some communities thrived greatly, while others remained small due to religious and government conflicts.

Here are some sites which are that you should include in your next Jewish vacation.

The Jewish community in Burma, also known as Myanmar, was established from the mid-19th century. The Jewish merchants who came there served as a station for imports and exports with overseas cities and British colonial rulers. Many Jews became successful in business and some even served as government officials. Since the Jewish population grew, so did their economic standing and philanthropic activities. The Japanese occupied Burma and expelled the Jews because they were believed to be British spies.

After the Japanese occupation, only 300 Jews remained. However, this time, everything including their wealth was gone. Over time, many Jewish families left the country. The changes in the authorities also forced the remnants to depart.

Now, there are approximately 20 Jews residing in Burma, including the caretakers of the previous synagogue.

The previous synagogue, Musmeah Yeshua, has a soaring high ceiling with beautiful columns was rebuilt in 1896. Before it’s 126 silver Torah scrolls, but currently there are only two. It was listed among the 188 Yangon heritage buildings and receives thousands of tourists every year.

The Little but Rich Jewish Community in Singapore

Here is a fun fact: Israel is among the few states who helped Singapore after it gained its independence from Malaysia.

The Jewish community is small, mostly Orthodox, but wealthy and very welcomed.

Maghain Aboth functions as a college to 150 students and a place to conduct bath rituals. There’s also a kosher store that serves delicacies and products from Israel. They also cater to events such as weddings, bar mitzvah and other occasions on their banquet hall.

The synagogue is excellent for Jewish excursion for tourists and vacationers alike due to the amenities available.

The 62-foot Tall Menorah in Indonesia

Who would have imagined that a giant Menorah are available in one of the world’s most populous Muslim nation? And the fact it is the government’s initiative to construct a 62-foot menorah is remarkable as well.

The earliest recorded history of Jewish community in Indonesia is written by Jacob Saphire. He interviewed a local Jew who advised them that there are approximately 20 Jewish families in Batavia and few more in Surabaya and Semarang. Most of the Jews were merchants and were an ally to the colonial regime.

Crimestopping Fitbits

Yellow, Wall, Girl, Woman, People

Have you monitored your 10,000 steps now? Has anyone else tracked them?

Fitness trackers are big business, helping people get and stay fit, and helping them share their progress with friends – and sometimes with strangers.

Possibly the most well-known of these devices (and apps) would be the FitBit and apps paired with the Apple Watch, but also include the Moov Now, Samsung Gear Fit, Huawei Band, Tom Tom Spark, and about 350 others. The ability to map your movements is one of the more fun and attractive features about these devices.

FitBit data helps to catch a potential murderer.

Fitness trackers in less light-hearted circumstances can offer evidence in the most serious of cases. At the end of 2015, Richard Dabate told Connecticut law enforcement a narrative of a break-in where the robber killed his wife while he was fighting off the intruder. The difficulty was that subpoenaed records of her FitBit revealed her active an hour after the murder was said to have taken place, and that she walked ten times farther then what would have taken her into the now-fictional perp’s view. Alongside other pc, Facebook, and phone evidence, and the fact that Dabate had a pregnant girlfriend that he was arrested for the crime. As of this writing, Mr. Dabate remains free on a million dollars bail.

FitBit data helps an innocent man go free

Her bloodied and nude body was found at a farm area nearby. Signs at first pointed to her boyfriend, Doug Detrie, who had been arrested but nonetheless seemed shocked at the information and protested his innocence. Detrie was held on a million-dollar bond, but the apparent evidence (blood in the car, in the garage, and a questionable spot on the sole of his shoe) didn’t hold up (blood in the car was not the victim’sblood in the garage was not a human’s, and the suspicious spot wasn’t blood) so he was released. Data from Doug’s FitBit showed he took only about a dozen measures during the time period in which Nicole died.

DNA evidence from Nicole’s clothes pointed at another man altogether, George Burch. Burch’s Android phone had Google Dashboard data connected with his Gmail account that showed GPS location data leading right to Nicole’s house.

FitBit data used to try to locate a lost person

In July of 2018, Iowa student, Mollie Tibbett went for a run and has not been seen since. Police have obtained her FitBit information in an effort to locate her but have not released what they found in that information to the public. It appears that the geolocation information there was not sufficient to find her. Additional data from her mobile phone and social media accounts has been sifted for clues, but as of August 6, 2018, there are no reports of her being found, although there seem to be people of interest. Hopefully place data from her FitBit will eventually help lead researchers to her current location.

FitBit data banned by the army

You may have heard news reports of late that the Army has expressed concern about military movements and security being compromised by data from fitness trackers and devices like the Apple Watch. A military officer was quoted as saying,”The moment a soldier puts on a system that can record high-definition audio and video, take photos, and process and transmit data, it’s very possible for him or her to be monitored or to reveal military secrets… The use of wearables with Web access, location information, and voice-calling functions should be considered a violation of national security regulations when used by military personnel.” But did you know that this information was from May 2015? And did you know it was a Chinese military official in the Chinese Army paper, the Liberation Army Daily?

That’s right, some foreign governments have been banning such devices for years now.

In 2013, the DOD distributed 2,500 FitBits to military personnel; in 2015 that the Navy planned to conduct a pilot program to help the enlisted and their superiors keep track of fitness goals, and”allow Army leaders to track their Soldiers’ fitness in real time.”

The information is viewable online, on a mobile device, or through the desktop application. Fitbit logs movement and allows users to log additional health data in the app. Fitbit then uses this information to show progress over time.

The manager of a companion program, called Strava, helps to map and display maps of readers’ movement using FitBit and other exercise tracking devices. In November 2017, Strava released their International Heat Map of 3 trillion individual global GPS data points uploaded from the previous two years. Zooming in on the maps, as Australian safety pupil Nathan Ruser did, revealed favored trails used in previously undisclosed bases by military physical fitness buffs. Heat map trails around and in Mogadishu could have provided possible targets of locations frequented by military personnel for Somalian dissidents.

As one may imagine, the Army on August 7, 2018 banned use of geolocation attributes in iPhones, Apple Watch, FitBit and other fitness trackers using the following directive:”Effectively immediately, Defense Department employees are prohibited from using geolocation features and performance on authorities and non-government-issued devices, applications, and services while in locations designated as operational areas.” It has not prohibited the use or possession of the apparatus altogether.

The (FitBit) Law of Unintended Consequences

There are three types of unintended consequences (based on Wikipedia)

As opposed to showing the accomplishment of an athletic endeavor it instead showed inaction once the crime would have demanded much motion, as with Doug Detrie and Nicole Vander Heyder.

An Unexpected drawback: An unexpected detriment happening in addition to the desirable effect of this policy, like a FitBit showing a supposed victim of a crime rather being the perpetrator as with Richard Dabate and his spouse.

A Perverse result: A perverse effect contrary to what was initially intended, as when military personnel using a FitBit to keep track of their fitness progress reveal themselves as potential targets to an adversary.

With any luck, none of these occasions will fall into lives of any of my readers.

Keep fit, keep track, but be aware that you may be showing more than you intend to.